• Reduce text

    Reduce text
  • Restore text size

    Restore text size
  • Increase the text

    Increase the text
  • Print

    Print
Biodiversité d'une prairie. Prairie naturelle de montagne d’Auvergne. ,Dans la nature, il existe une grande diversité de plantes sauvages. Les prairies permanentes peuvent associer jusqu’à 60 à 70 espèces différentes. Observer les prairies pour comprendre les interactions « plantes - herbivores - micro organismes » du sol dans la perspective d’une meilleure complémentarité entre maintien ou restauration de la qualité du milieu et renforcement de la qualité de l’alimentation des troupeaux dans des territoires ruraux fragilisés.,La prairie apparaît comme un milieu forgé par sa richesse en éléments minéraux disponibles (naturellement ou provenant de la fertilisation) et par le mode d’intervention (pâturage et fauche) des animaux. Ce sont les deux leviers qui peuvent être utilisés pour modifier la composition botanique et les performances, en termes de quantité et de qualité, afin de mieux répondre aux exigences nouvelles.,. © INRA, TOILLON Sylvie

Adaptation and biodiversity

International Action GrassLandscape - Bridging landscape genomics and quantitative genetics for a regional adaptation of European grasslands to climate-change

The GrassLandscape project aims to detect genomic markers of climatic adaptation in the natural diversity of perennial ryegrass using methodological tools from the Landscape genomics conceptual frame. Results will be used to set up strategies to adapt the diversity of this forage grass to the foreseen climate changes (assisted migration, breeding).

Updated on 04/17/2015
Published on 03/10/2015

In the next decades, grasslands as important ecosystems and basis of dairy and meat production are likely to experience damages and subsequent production losses due to changing climate. Recent events (e.g. severe drought in Western Europe in 2003) highlighted an insufficient capacity in local populations of grassland species to cope with unusual climatic events. However, most grassland species show large ecotype diversity over wide environmental ranges. This large ecotype diversity could be used to recombine natural climatic adaptations and value for services to create improved populations of grassland species adapted to the foreseen future regional climates. To implement this strategy, it is necessary to have extended knowledge of the adaptive diversity existing in grassland species.

The GrassLandscape consortium has been funded by the FACCE-JPI ERA-NET+ call “Climate Smart Agriculture” to implement this strategy to perennial ryegrass which is a major grassland species in Europe. It includes INRA and EPHE-CEFE in France, IBERS in the United-Kingdom and IPK in Germany. This project will use an innovative methodological frame (Landscape genomics) to screen the natural diversity of perennial ryegrass in order to discover genetic variability involved in environmental adaptation, and more specifically in climatic adaptation. The landscape genomics approach is based on the combined use of methods correlating genomic polymorphisms and environmental variations at sites of origin of genotypes and of tests of signature of selection. To implement this frame, the consortium will use a genotyping method based on massively parallel sequencing technology applied to 550 populations of perennial ryegrass sampled across the whole area of primary expansion of this species (Europe, Northern Africa and Near East). These populations will be taken out from genebanks of plant breeding institutes or collected in situ across Europe. The genotyping protocol is expected to deliver several tens thousands of polymorphic sites along perennial ryegrass genome. Populations will be furthermore phenotyped in fields and in controlled environment to record agronomic and eco-physiological traits.

Du projet GrassLandscape à la restauration de prairies dégradées par les bouleversements climatiques. © INRA, Jean-Paul Sampoux
Du projet GrassLandscape à la restauration de prairies dégradées par les bouleversements climatiques © INRA, Jean-Paul Sampoux

Association models between genomic polymorphisms and environmental variations will be used to map the spatial distribution of genomic markers linked to adaptive diversity in present climatic conditions and to foresee possible shifts in the spatial range fitting these markers in the context of several climate change scenarios based on the four Representative Concentration Pathways of IPCC AR5.

Based on these results, the consortium will define allelic profiles of perennial ryegrass expected to provide climatic adaptation at regional scale over Europe under the future climatic conditions foreseen by climate models. Strategies will be proposed to combine climatic adaptation and value for services by genetic recombination. A number of genetic pools will be designed to mix different natural populations. These genetic pools will be the basis to initiate breeding programmes aiming to deliver improved populations adapted to future regional climates. These improved populations will enable to restore grasslands degraded by future climatic disruptions.

Duration: 3 years (2015 - 2017)

Poster displayed at the conference Climate Smart Agriculture in Montpellier (March 2015): Poster GrassLandscape - CSA2015

Contact(s)
Scientific contact(s):

Associated Division(s):
Plant Biology and Breeding